Table of contents
Sometimes the vowel u takes upon itself the consonant sound of w, as in quick or suave. This is usually the case when q is followed by u, as in quiet and quaint.
When y is not acting as a vowel, it is a consonant. Most consonants have only one sound, but a few have multiple sounds. For instance, c can make both the /k/ and the /s/ sound.
The vowels are a, e, i, o, and u.
Each vowel has two sounds: a long sound and a short sound. The long sound is the same as its name.
There is both a long and short sound to “oo”. The long sound appears as in the words boo, food, smooth, and moose.
這個跟mind map版的規則有衝突，mind map版的說oo只有後面接d或k時發短音，其他發長音
y → i
w → u (只在a,e,o後)
can be as a u when following a,e,o , but how to pronounce aw,ew,ow (au, eu, ou)
Sometimes, the basic rules of phonics do not apply. Each of these instances must be memorized. Common examples include, but are not limited, to:
- IGH as in “high” or “sight”
- -NG as in “sing,” “song,” “sung”
- OST as in “most” (but not “lost” or “cost”) uses the long sound instead of the normal short sound.
- OW has two different sounds as in “low” and “cow.” (or, “sow” and “sow.”)
- ED has three different sounds as in “lifted,” “played,” and “walked”
- OI does not follow the two vowels rule, e.g., “moist” or “boil.”
- Double O has two different sounds, as in “book” and “loose.”
- OUS as in “nervous.”
- AU as in “fault” or “haul.”
- -SION, -TION, and -CION are all pronounced “shun.”
- OUGH has at least seven different sounds, as in “bough,” “cough,” “hough,” “tough,” “thorough,” “thought,” and “through.”
When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. The unstressed syllable usually takes the schwa sound.
It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.
- Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba’/sic, pro’/gram.
- In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box’/es, un/tie’.
- If de-, re-, ex-, in-, po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay’, ex/plore’.
- Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain’, con/ceal’.
- When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin’/ner, let’/ter.
- The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta’/tion, dif/fer/en’/ti/ate.
- In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac’/ci/dent, de/ter’/mine.
Many words do not follow these rules, and are called sight words. Because they do not follow the normal rules, these must be memorized. Examples include the, are, and you. They are also sometimes called ‘irregular words’ or ‘outlaw words’.
Here are some more examples:
- the, to, do, and who — These should have long vowel sounds because they are open syllables, like me and go.
- what, was, and whom — These should have short vowel sounds because they are closed syllables, like sat and cot.
- again, against, says and said — These should have long a sounds because of the ai vowel combination, like say and pain.
- been — This should have a long e sound, like seen.
In many words, the o says /short u/ instead of /short o/ or /long o/, as in of, from, son, month, front, some, love, other, money, and among.